Impact of air pollution on health in Indonesia

Indonesia in Top 8 Countries with Worst Air Quality

Cities and rural areas are affected by air pollution

Indonesian Society of Respirology stated that air pollution has proven implied human health including respiratory or pulmonary system, cardiovascular system, cerebrovascular system, cancer risk, and woman and children’s health

Extract | Outdoor air pollution is a mix of chemicals, particulate matter, and biological materials that react with each other to form tiny hazardous particles. It contributes to breathing problems, chronic diseases, increased hospitalization, and premature mortality. In Indonesia, this is the cause 50% of morbidity nationwide. How is air pollution affecting Indonesia? More than 80% of the Indonesian population of more than 260 million inhabitants, is exposed to annual average concentrations of pollution, well above the WHO guideline. The country has the fifth-highest loss of years of life in the world due to particulate matter pollution.

Globally, air pollution kills an estimated 7 million people annually in Indonesia according to the World Health Organisation (WHO).

Jakarta ranks ninth among the most polluted cities in the world and first as the most polluted city in Southeast Asia.

Current air pollution problems are greatest in Indonesia as it caused 50% of morbidity across the country. Diseases stemming from vehicular emissions and air pollution include acute respiratory infection, bronchial asthma, bronchitis, and eye, skin irritations, lung cancer, and cardiovascular diseases.

What are the health consequences of air pollution on populations?

Exposure to high levels of air pollution can cause a variety of adverse health outcomes. It increases the risk of respiratory infections, heart disease, and lung cancer. Both short and long-term exposure to air pollutants has been associated with health impacts. More severe impacts affect people who are already ill. Children, the elderly, and poor people are more susceptible. The most health-harmful pollutants – closely associated with excessive premature mortality- are fine PM2.5 particles that penetrate deep into lung passageways.

Effect on pregnancy and child development

Air pollution affects pregnant women, fetuses and children. Exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with adverse birth outcomes, such as low birth weight, premature births, fetal death and low gestational births, and disorders neuro-developmental. In children, exposure to air pollution is associated with the risk of acute respiratory infections, decreased lung function, cancer risk, mental and motor development disorders and cognitive impairment in children and adolescents.

What are some of the major sources or causes of ambient air pollution?

Major sources of ambient air pollution include inefficient modes of transport (polluting fuels and vehicles), inefficient combustion of household fuels for cooking, lighting, and heating, coal-fired power plants, agriculture, and waste burning as mostly everywhere here, where Fair Future Foundation is working! (Why? Because there is no form of organised waste management. No pick-ups, no sorting … Everything is on fire and yes, it’s a drama!)

In Indonesia plastic combustion is responsible for the majority of asthma cases in children. The culprits are “phthalates”, those chemicals which give plastic its prized qualities (flexibility), and which are serious endocrine disruptors, associated with a plethora of health problems.

  • Burning plastics releases toxic gases such as dioxins, furans, mercury, and polychlorinated biphenyls into the atmosphere, and poses a threat to vegetation, as well as to the health of humans and animals;
  • When plastic is burned, it releases dangerous chemicals such as hydrochloric acid, sulfur dioxide, dioxins, furans and heavy metals, as well as particulates. These emissions are known to cause respiratory ailments and stress human immune systems, and they’re potentially carcinogenic;
  • Dioxins are deposited on crops, fruits, vegetables, and in waterways where they end up in our food and therefore in our bodies. These dioxins are potentially fatal persistent organic pollutants that can cause cancer and disrupt the respiratory and thyroid systems.

What can citizens do to protect themselves?

Fighting air pollution is everybody’s responsibility. We all need to do more, a lot more. Swiftly and proactively to reduce air pollution. Concerted and coordinated efforts with the active involvement of all the sectors are imperative. This includes the Government (national, state, and local governments), cities, community at large, and individuals.

  • To national governments: reduce emissions and set national standards that meet WHO air quality guidelines. Invest in research and education around clean air and pollution – they are an essential tool.
  • To cities and local communities: Public policies across sectors must factor in public health from the beginning, followed up with sufficient data and tools to assess them.
  • To individuals: Continue to stand up for your right to healthy and sustainable environments. Hold your government accountable.

All of us – in government, business, and individual – we are all accountable. Think and rethink, the way you live and consume and make sustainable choices for yourself, your children and your children’s children.

What can Indonesia and all other countries do to reduce air pollution?

Interventions to reduce air pollution include developing sustainable transport in cities; implementing solid waste management; providing access to clean household fuels and cookstoves; developing a market for renewables energies and energy efficiency, and implementing industrial emissions reductions.

In Indonesia, the regulation and control of land management need to be stronger. The government needs to lay down guidelines stating how State Forest Land can be used. A limited amount of permits for the exploration of the peatlands and forested areas should be introduced.

What Fair Future recommends above all else!

Prevention is a major aspect that should be done to minimize the effect of air pollution on human health.

Some of the prevention activities involved establishing regulations to reduce air pollution emissions, including regulation of non-smoking areas, regulation of threshold limit values ​​for vehicle emissions, emissions monitoring, vehicle maintenance, the implementation of industrial emissions, the rapid mass transport project in some large cities and the increase in energy from renewable sources.

To protect human health from air pollution, further research is being done on health vulnerability. Collaboration between professional organizations, non-governmental organizations, and government organizations on media education, workshops, and symposia should be established to increase people’s awareness of air pollution.

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Donate for a cause of your choice

Donate to programs initiated by Fair Future and be on the ground with us. We are committed to ensuring that as many people as possible have access to medical care (basic and emergency care), Covid-19 screening and testing, access to school and knowledge, drinking and clean water, sanitation, women's rights, and minorities living in rural and ultra peripheral areas.

Going where no one ever goes is one of our priorities, see Truck Of Life program.

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Give for Clean Water Access

Fair Future works every day to improve the living conditions of rural communities in eastern Indonesia.

One of the Foundation's tasks is to ensure equitable access to water in quantity and quality, in order to prevent disease, maintain lives and livelihoods. This is to reduce environmental risks to health, by managing sanitation safely and with dignity. Still, the foundation seeks to involve women and men in the management of water resources, in sanitation by the implementation of safe hygiene practices in order to maximize the benefits for their communities. Read more here!

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Give for healthcare access

Whether it is to fight against famine, diseases linked to the lack of clean water, the lack of sanitation system, the fight against the Covid-19 pandemic, respiratory diseases linked to air pollution, tuberculosis, or any other form of recurrent illness, Fair Future does what it can to best help populations in need.

Help us to provide us with medicines, medical equipment, logistics, my indispensable faith also to get us where no one ever goes. Help us to heal, to give a better life, to help us to save lives!

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Give for COVID-19 in Indonesia

Take care of people, do what the state does not! Fair Futur acts to detect, test, treat and vaccinate the victims of the Pandemic. No Antigen tests, no vaccine (here in Sumba for example, hardly anyone is vaccinated). Also, the health centers are closed because they are infected and the medical staff is sick.

There are very few doctors and other medical personnel who are still at work. This is linked to medical and infectious factors, but also and above all because the staff is no longer paid, therefore they no longer come to work.

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Providing relief in natural disasters

After the Sumba natural disaster in April 2021, Fair Future is the only foreign organization there. We commit ourselves every day to rebuild, to improve...

We are confronted with health problems, social challenges. We need infrastructural and human resources. They need to eat, drink, have access to healthcare and a roof to protect themselves!

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Give for Rumah Kambera

Fair Future and Kawan Baik Indonesia Foundation incorporate in all its choices and decisions taken in the context of its actions and field programs, the notions of risks for communities, what is good or bad for them, for people, children, villages. And for years, we have for mission to develop, support and create humanitarian programs and actions linked to education, training, and medical care. This is why Fair Future and Kawan Baik Indonesia have created Rumah Kambera, our Base Camp in the Eastern part of Indonesia.

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The Fair Future donation platform focuses on the fundraising needs of nonprofit organizations

More than yesterday and even less than tomorrow, Fair Future and Kawan Baik Foundations continue to develop projects with humanitarian, positive, and virtuous objectives.

Our organizations get involved every day, in a concrete way on the ground. They are men and women, mostly volunteers, who work to find solutions and implement them so that everyone can have a better life.

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Some more Information

Water Connections. The deep borehole of MbinuDita – Part#1

From the drilling site, here in East Sumba, MbinuDita village. In the middle of nowhere, at the foot of the hill that hosts our school in SD Mbinudita. Most of the work has started. Several phases will lead us to provide a clean water network to more than 200 families who have never had direct access to it. Where it’s complicated is that the groups of houses are sometimes several kilometers apart. This, therefore, makes the thing technically complex in terms of physical law! This action is fully linked to the “Water Connections” program, initiated by the Fair Future and Kawan Baik Indonesia foundations.

Medical assistance – Malaria in Indonesia, what we are doing?

Risk is present throughout the country, excluding urban areas, and excluding the areas specified: J akarta, Surabaya, Denpasar (Bali), and other large cities are risk-free, including the beach resorts in southern Bali. Sporadic cases of malaria in travelers have been reported from rural areas of Java, Bali (Padangbai area), Bintan, and Lombok islands. The WHO data does not take into account the situation in eastern Indonesia, which is linked to the lack of existing data. Nevertheless, malaria in the regions of Flores, Sumba Timur and Kupang is important in rural villages.

Dengue fever cases still on the rise despite seasonal change

The COVID-19 epidemic has not slowed the onset of seasonal dengue fever across the country. The country has been battling dengue fever since early this year, at a time when state resources have been spent on curbing the COVID-19 outbreak. The similarities between dengue fever and COVID-19 symptoms have also complicated efforts to mitigate the annual spike in cases. The island of Java has contributed the highest average number of dengue hemorrhagic fever cases each year. In recent years, Bali and Borneo (Kalimantan) have had the highest incidence.

Impact of air pollution on health in Indonesia!

Outdoor air pollution is a mix of chemicals, particulate matter, and biological materials that react with each other to form tiny hazardous particles. It contributes to breathing problems, chronic diseases, increased hospitalization, and premature mortality. In Indonesia, this is the cause 50% of morbidity nationwide. How is air pollution affecting Indonesia? More than 80% of the Indonesian population of more than 260 million inhabitants, is exposed to annual average concentrations of pollution, well above the WHO guideline. The country has the fifth-highest loss of years of life in the world due to particulate matter pollution.

Assistance to people in case of malnutrition problems

Social consequences of malnutrition. Undernourished children have weaker immune systems and are thus more susceptible to infections and illnesses. Long-term insufficient nutrient intake and frequent infections can cause stunting, whose effects in terms of delayed motor and cognitive development are largely irreversible.

Medical Assistance for Children’s in pandemic time

Fair Future notes that children are certainly the most affected by the indirect impact of the pandemic than by the viral infection itself. Indeed, we have noticed that the COVID-19 pandemic is having an impact on the health of children, but through the increase in poverty, the loss of education and the closure of schools -here in Indonesia the closure of schools since March 2020-, food insecurity, violence as well as increased pressure on health systems and reduced access to personal health care services.

Truck of Life, Truck of Health Medical Care in Kangeli, East-Sumba

Truck of Life, Truck of health. Providing medical care in a remote village in East Sumba, close to Lewa. Desa Kangeli, where more than 120 people, essentially children have received medical care, medical treatments, food, clothes, games, books, and fun with the Fair Future and Kawan Baik Indonesia foundations.

Sumba disaster, current situation, what we are going to do next!

The food crisis, the crisis linked to the lack of water, the lack of access to healthcare … What Fair Future is doing to remedy many problems on the spot, here in Sumba East. Well drilling, construction of community water points, free medical care, planning of the reconstruction phase …

A “central water point” for 250 people, 39 families from East Sumba

Fair Future has just allocated a fund of IDR.148’000’000.- in order to proceed to the drilling of a deep well in order to provide clean water to a population of 250 people. This includes toilets and a place to wash and create social activities around the theme of water. This water center also aims to improve the health of people, especially children. A project by Fair Future, Kawan Baik, and the Indonesian Red Cross.

Going everywhere to help people from East Sumba

As you can see in these few photos taken by our teams in the field, thousands of people live in difficult conditions. Today, Fair Future and C / o are still working in a hurry! Certainly not the one that followed the disaster, but to tempt those who no longer have access to the most basic things such as: Water, food, medical care … As you can see in these few photos taken by our teams in the field, thousands of people live in difficult conditions.

Common diseases we work on

Tuberculosis in Indonesia: A social disease affects the poorest communities, those living in difficult conditions. There are hundreds of thousands of new cases in Indonesia, such as HIV, which is not often mentioned here!

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that most often affect the lungs. Tuberculosis is curable and preventable.

A social disease, tuberculosis affects more particularly the poorest groups of the population, in particular the homeless people in whom the incidence (approximately 200 / 100,000) far exceeds that of other groups.

In Indonesia, tuberculosis is the leading cause of death in the category of infectious diseases. However, when one considers the general causes of death, tuberculosis ranks 3rd after heart disease and acute respiratory disease at all ages. The number of tuberculosis cases found in 2019 was around 645,000 cases. This figure has increased from the tuberculosis data recorded in 2018, which was in the order of 566.00 cases.

Meanwhile, the number of recorded deaths from tuberculosis based on WHO 2019 data is 98,000 people. This includes 5,300 deaths of tuberculosis patients with HIV / AIDS.

Life-saving anti-tuberculosis drugs are still unaffordable and out of reach for children in high-burden countries like Indonesia.

In 2020, the 30 countries with a high TB burden accounted for 87% of new TB cases. Eight countries account for two-thirds of the total, led by India, followed by Indonesia, China, Philippines, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh, and South Africa.


More info: https://tbindonesia.or.id/pustaka-tbc/informasi/tentang-tbc/situasi-tbc-di-indonesia-2/
Dengue virus infection: DENV is a real major cause of acute febrile illness here. In the most affected regions, mortality is very high & affects the most vulnerable. Especially for those who do not have access to medical care.
Malaria and the vulnerable: Every year, malaria kills thousands of people in Indonesia, in all regions, even the richest. 70% of all deaths are children under five, and affect people and families who cannot access medical care.
Antimicrobial resistances. In here, this is a real health emergency, almost all drugs are available over the counter! This scourge turns simple wounds and easily treatable diseases into causes of death.

Antimicrobial resistance

Antimicrobial agents have played a vital role in reducing the burden of communicable diseases around the world. The WHO South-East Asia Region is no exception. On an Indonesian or "local" scale, antimicrobial drugs, including antibiotics, are very cheap, accessible, and very effective. It is with good reason that many have long considered them to be "miracle drugs".

The situation in Indonesia with this major health problem is absolutely catastrophic. Participating physicians prescribe antimicrobials on all counts, for infections for which any form of antimicrobial is unnecessary. Too large a proportion of sick patients simply no longer respond to the treatments they - sometimes very urgently - need.

The emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) creates “superbugs” that make treatment of basic infections difficult (and in some cases impossible) and surgery risky. And while the emergence of resistance in microorganisms is an ongoing phenomenon, its amplification and spread are the results of one thing: human behavior.

The WHO South-East Asia Region is particularly affected. As the risk assessments conducted by WHO have shown, the Region is probably the most at-risk part of the world. Not only does AMR affect the health and well-being of people in Indonesia, it also has ramifications for public health and general well-being. This makes the problem of immense global importance.

 


More info: https://www.balimedicaljournal.org/index.php/bmj/article/viewFile/1386/pdf
Air pollution and health: Plastic that burns, everywhere! Air pollution is responsible for almost 50% of mortality here. Dioxins, furans, mercury, and polychlorinated biphenyls are highly toxic!
Malnutrition and famine: Malnutrition causes serious illnesses where we are! The phenomenon, creating a vicious cycle of starvation & disease. This is a major problem in which we deal with!

And about the Dengue fever?

Quick facts about Malaria

Click to open it

FFF Base Camp NTT, East Sumba

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