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Impact of air pollution on health in Indonesia

Indonesia in Top 8 Countries with Worst Air Quality

Cities and rural areas are affected by air pollution

Indonesian Society of Respirology stated that air pollution has proven implied human health including respiratory or pulmonary system, cardiovascular system, cerebrovascular system, cancer risk, and woman and children’s health

Extract | Outdoor air pollution is a mix of chemicals, particulate matter, and biological materials that react with each other to form tiny hazardous particles. It contributes to breathing problems, chronic diseases, increased hospitalization, and premature mortality. In Indonesia, this is the cause 50% of morbidity nationwide. How is air pollution affecting Indonesia? More than 80% of the Indonesian population of more than 260 million inhabitants, is exposed to annual average concentrations of pollution, well above the WHO guideline. The country has the fifth-highest loss of years of life in the world due to particulate matter pollution.

Globally, air pollution kills an estimated 7 million people annually in Indonesia according to the World Health Organisation (WHO). Jakarta ranks ninth among the most polluted cities in the world and first as the most polluted city in Southeast Asia.

Current air pollution problems are greatest in Indonesia as it caused 50% of morbidity across the country. Diseases stemming from vehicular emissions and air pollution include acute respiratory infection, bronchial asthma, bronchitis, and eye, skin irritations, lung cancer, and cardiovascular diseases.

What are the health consequences of air pollution on populations?

Exposure to high levels of air pollution can cause a variety of adverse health outcomes. It increases the risk of respiratory infections, heart disease, and lung cancer. Both short and long-term exposure to air pollutants has been associated with health impacts. More severe impacts affect people who are already ill. Children, the elderly, and poor people are more susceptible. The most health-harmful pollutants – closely associated with excessive premature mortality- are fine PM2.5 particles that penetrate deep into lung passageways.

Effect on pregnancy and child development

Air pollution affects pregnant women, fetuses and children. Exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with adverse birth outcomes, such as low birth weight, premature births, fetal death and low gestational births, and disorders neuro-developmental. In children, exposure to air pollution is associated with the risk of acute respiratory infections, decreased lung function, cancer risk, mental and motor development disorders and cognitive impairment in children and adolescents.

What are some of the major sources or causes of ambient air pollution?

Major sources of ambient air pollution include inefficient modes of transport (polluting fuels and vehicles), inefficient combustion of household fuels for cooking, lighting, and heating, coal-fired power plants, agriculture, and waste burning as mostly everywhere here, where Fair Future Foundation is working! (Why? Because there is no form of organised waste management. No pick-ups, no sorting … Everything is on fire and yes, it’s a drama!)

In Indonesia plastic combustion is responsible for the majority of asthma cases in children. The culprits are “phthalates”, those chemicals which give plastic its prized qualities (flexibility), and which are serious endocrine disruptors, associated with a plethora of health problems.

  • Burning plastics releases toxic gases such as dioxins, furans, mercury, and polychlorinated biphenyls into the atmosphere, and poses a threat to vegetation, as well as to the health of humans and animals;
  • When plastic is burned, it releases dangerous chemicals such as hydrochloric acid, sulfur dioxide, dioxins, furans and heavy metals, as well as particulates. These emissions are known to cause respiratory ailments and stress human immune systems, and they’re potentially carcinogenic;
  • Dioxins are deposited on crops, fruits, vegetables, and in waterways where they end up in our food and therefore in our bodies. These dioxins are potentially fatal persistent organic pollutants that can cause cancer and disrupt the respiratory and thyroid systems.

What can citizens do to protect themselves?

Fighting air pollution is everybody’s responsibility. We all need to do more, a lot more. Swiftly and proactively to reduce air pollution. Concerted and coordinated efforts with the active involvement of all the sectors are imperative. This includes the Government (national, state, and local governments), cities, community at large, and individuals.

  • To national governments: reduce emissions and set national standards that meet WHO air quality guidelines. Invest in research and education around clean air and pollution – they are an essential tool.
  • To cities and local communities: Public policies across sectors must factor in public health from the beginning, followed up with sufficient data and tools to assess them.
  • To individuals: Continue to stand up for your right to healthy and sustainable environments. Hold your government accountable.

All of us – in government, business, and individual – we are all accountable. Think and rethink, the way you live and consume and make sustainable choices for yourself, your children and your children’s children.

What can Indonesia and all other countries do to reduce air pollution?

Interventions to reduce air pollution include developing sustainable transport in cities; implementing solid waste management; providing access to clean household fuels and cookstoves; developing a market for renewables energies and energy efficiency, and implementing industrial emissions reductions.

In Indonesia, the regulation and control of land management need to be stronger. The government needs to lay down guidelines stating how State Forest Land can be used. A limited amount of permits for the exploration of the peatlands and forested areas should be introduced.

What Fair Future recommends above all else!

Prevention is a major aspect that should be done to minimize the effect of air pollution on human health.

Some of the prevention activities involved establishing regulations to reduce air pollution emissions, including regulation of non-smoking areas, regulation of threshold limit values ​​for vehicle emissions, emissions monitoring, vehicle maintenance, the implementation of industrial emissions, the rapid mass transport project in some large cities and the increase in energy from renewable sources.

To protect human health from air pollution, further research is being done on health vulnerability. Collaboration between professional organizations, non-governmental organizations, and government organizations on media education, workshops, and symposia should be established to increase people’s awareness of air pollution.

COVID-19 in Indonesia, a dramatic situation

Take care of people, do what the state does not! Fair Futur acts to detect, test, treat and vaccinate the victims of the Pandemic. No Antigen tests, no vaccine (here in Sumba for example, hardly anyone is vaccinated). Also, the health centers are closed because they are infected and the medical staff is sick.

There are very few doctors and other medical personnel who are still at work. This is linked to medical and infectious factors, but also and above all because the staff is no longer paid, therefore they no longer come to work.

**Click here to make a donation

Donate for East Indonesia disaster

After the Sumba natural disaster in April 2021, Fair Future is the only foreign organization there. We commit ourselves every day to rebuild, to improve...

We are confronted with health problems, social challenges. We need infrastructural and human resources. They need to eat, drink, have access to healthcare and a roof to protect themselves!

**Click here to make a donation

Donate for Clean Water Access in East Sumba

Do you want to participate in the drilling of a well for 40 families and 250 people? Provide clean and potable water to all those who no longer have access to it, or who have never had access to it. Water is life, water makes you feel good!

To do this, Fair Future and the Indonesian Red Cross are launching a program to build wells, toilets and provide access to drinking water to 42 villages and communities in East Sumba.

**Click here to make a donation

Donate for a cause of your choice

Donate to programs initiated by Fair Future and be on the ground with us. We are committed to ensuring that as many people as possible have access to medical care (basic and emergency care), Covid-19 screening and testing, access to school and knowledge, drinking and clean water, sanitation, women's rights, and minorities living in rural and ultra peripheral areas.

Going where no one ever goes is one of our priorities, see Truck Of Life program.

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You don't have access to e-banking?

Sometimes, it is not possible to make a donation via modern solutions, by what is called "e-banking".

From then on, you can participate in one of our projects or programs by making a bank transfer, via one of our two bank accounts in Switzerland.

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Action for Fair Future Plateforme

The Fair Future donation platform focuses on the fundraising needs of nonprofit organizations

More than yesterday and even less than tomorrow, Fair Future and Kawan Baik Foundations continue to develop projects with humanitarian, positive, and virtuous objectives.

Our organizations get involved every day, in a concrete way on the ground. They are men and women, mostly volunteers, who work to find solutions and implement them so that everyone can have a better life.

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Some more Information

Dengue fever cases still on the rise despite seasonal change

The COVID-19 epidemic has not slowed the onset of seasonal dengue fever across the country. The country has been battling dengue fever since early this year, at a time when state resources have been spent on curbing the COVID-19 outbreak. The similarities between dengue fever and COVID-19 symptoms have also complicated efforts to mitigate the annual spike in cases. The island of Java has contributed the highest average number of dengue hemorrhagic fever cases each year. In recent years, Bali and Borneo (Kalimantan) have had the highest incidence.

Order the Fair Future Foundation t-shirt now

To support the actions of the foundation, you can help us in several ways. You can buy one of our t-shirts for example! The Fair Future team in the field uses this new 2021 t-shirt. Pure White and simple, it uses the colors of Switzerland, Indonesia, and of course, our official logo. The Red and the White: Association of two colors which represent Passion and Purity!

Impact of air pollution on health in Indonesia

Outdoor air pollution is a mix of chemicals, particulate matter, and biological materials that react with each other to form tiny hazardous particles. It contributes to breathing problems, chronic diseases, increased hospitalization, and premature mortality. In Indonesia, this is the cause 50% of morbidity nationwide. How is air pollution affecting Indonesia? More than 80% of the Indonesian population of more than 260 million inhabitants, is exposed to annual average concentrations of pollution, well above the WHO guideline. The country has the fifth-highest loss of years of life in the world due to particulate matter pollution.

Assistance to people in case of malnutrition problems

Social consequences of malnutrition. Undernourished children have weaker immune systems and are thus more susceptible to infections and illnesses. Long-term insufficient nutrient intake and frequent infections can cause stunting, whose effects in terms of delayed motor and cognitive development are largely irreversible.

Medical Assistance for Children’s in pandemic time

Fair Future notes that children are certainly the most affected by the indirect impact of the pandemic than by the viral infection itself. Indeed, we have noticed that the COVID-19 pandemic is having an impact on the health of children, but through the increase in poverty, the loss of education and the closure of schools -here in Indonesia the closure of schools since March 2020-, food insecurity, violence as well as increased pressure on health systems and reduced access to personal health care services.

Rumah Kambera Base Camp – Covid-19 fight and Clean Water updates

Management of the pharmacy, water supply, Covid-19 program, infrastructures, and day-to-day organizations.
Facing the crisis linked to the pandemic, the lack of water and vital resources, managing the organizational structure in order to optimize the social and medical assistance that we offer. The 24 hours that a day counts are not enough to do everything!

Covid-19 fight – Free vaccination day for 500 registered people – 26.09.21.

Vaccination is still not accessible to everyone! Fair Future and Kawan Baik Indonesia, in collaboration with Denpasar City Youth Organization, Denpasar City Covid Task Force, Health Office, Social Service, and several medical personnel volunteers, have the opportunity to be able to carry out free vaccinations. This day of free vaccination will be held on September 26, 2021, at Rumah Sanur Creative Hub, Fair Future Foundation and Kawan Baik Indonesia foundations Base camp in Denpasar.

We allocate CHF. 10,000.- for the construction of a new Central Clean Water Access Point, in East Sumba

We are indeed pleased to announce the funding, for an amount of more than CHF 10,000.-, of a new Central Point of Access to Clean and Potable Water, as part of socio-medical actions in Rumah Kambera, eastern Indonesia. Access to water for families is essential for their lives, health, and well-being. In this sense, implementing sustainable solutions is one of our main goals with the Fair Future Foundation. In addition, this program is clearly part of the fight we are leading and engaging against the pandemic here in eastern Indonesia.

Tomorrow 31.08.21, a 3rd team will join forces already present in eastern indonesia

After having sent the 2nd team on-site last week, Fair Future will leave on August 31, 2021, in reinforcement to join the Base Camp of Rumah Kambera in Sumba East. A 3rd team made up of Kawan Ayu, Kawan Hasto and Kawan Alex. The mission is clearly defined in what we have been doing for months on the spot, namely: To fight as best as possible the devastation linked to the Covid-19 pandemic on the spot.

Covid-19 fight | We have just allocated CHF 5,000 for medical equipment

As part of our fight against the ravages of the pandemic in eastern Indonesia – where the situation is much more serious than in Bali -, Fair Future also wanted to help those on the ground here in Denpasar. These volunteers fight so much and more, against the problems linked to the spread of the pandemic in Indonesia, in Bali, and who do not really succeed. But who does what is necessary, that is to say, the essential!

Common diseases we work on

Life-saving tuberculosis drugs are still unaffordable and out of reach for children in high-burden countries like Indonesia.

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that most often affect the lungs. Tuberculosis is curable and preventable.

A social disease, tuberculosis affects more particularly the poorest groups of the population, in particular the homeless people in whom the incidence (approximately 200 / 100,000) far exceeds that of other groups.

In Indonesia, tuberculosis is the leading cause of death in the category of infectious diseases. However, when one considers the general causes of death, tuberculosis ranks 3rd after heart disease and acute respiratory disease at all ages. The number of tuberculosis cases found in 2019 was around 645,000 cases. This figure has increased from the tuberculosis data recorded in 2018, which was in the order of 566.00 cases.

Meanwhile, the number of recorded deaths from tuberculosis based on WHO 2019 data is 98,000 people. This includes 5,300 deaths of tuberculosis patients with HIV / AIDS.

Life-saving anti-tuberculosis drugs are still unaffordable and out of reach for children in high-burden countries like Indonesia.

In 2020, the 30 countries with a high TB burden accounted for 87% of new TB cases. Eight countries account for two-thirds of the total, led by India, followed by Indonesia, China, Philippines, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh, and South Africa.


More info: https://tbindonesia.or.id/pustaka-tbc/informasi/tentang-tbc/situasi-tbc-di-indonesia-2/

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that most often affect the lungs. Tuberculosis is curable and preventable.

A social disease, tuberculosis affects more particularly the poorest groups of the population, in particular the homeless people in whom the incidence (approximately 200 / 100,000) far exceeds that of other groups.

In Indonesia, tuberculosis is the leading cause of death in the category of infectious diseases. However, when one considers the general causes of death, tuberculosis ranks 3rd after heart disease and acute respiratory disease at all ages. The number of tuberculosis cases found in 2019 was around 645,000 cases. This figure has increased from the tuberculosis data recorded in 2018, which was in the order of 566.00 cases.

Meanwhile, the number of recorded deaths from tuberculosis based on WHO 2019 data is 98,000 people. This includes 5,300 deaths of tuberculosis patients with HIV / AIDS.

Life-saving anti-tuberculosis drugs are still unaffordable and out of reach for children in high-burden countries like Indonesia.

In 2020, the 30 countries with a high TB burden accounted for 87% of new TB cases. Eight countries account for two-thirds of the total, led by India, followed by Indonesia, China, Philippines, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh, and South Africa.


More info: https://tbindonesia.or.id/pustaka-tbc/informasi/tentang-tbc/situasi-tbc-di-indonesia-2/

Dengue virus (DENV) infection is a major cause of acute febrile illness in Indonesia.  And a high cause of death.

Dengue Fever

Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a disease caused by dengue virus infection (IVD) which is transmitted through the bite of the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes.

Dengue virus infection is an endemic disease that appears throughout the year, especially in the rainy season in various tropical and sub-tropical regions including in Indonesia. The rainy season is an optimal condition for breeding mosquitoes, so there can be an increase in cases that are high and fast. According to WHO, Indonesia is the second-largest country with dengue cases among 30 endemic regions.

The case fatality rate (CFR) has been estimated at more than 20% of those infected. Knowing that Dengue fever affects millions of people every year, this makes it one of the most important causes of death in Indonesia. Complications can lead to circulatory system failure and shock, and can be fatal (also known as Dengue Shock Syndrome).

In some cases, Dengue infection is asymptomatic – persons do not exhibit symptoms. Those with symptoms get ill between 4 to 7 days after the bite. The infection is characterized by flu-like symptoms which include a sudden high fever coming in separate waves, pain behind the eyes, muscle, joint, and bone pain, severe headache, and a skin rash with red spots. Treatment includes supportive care of symptoms.

There is no antiviral treatment available. The illness may progress to Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF). Symptoms include severe abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, convulsions, bruising, and uncontrolled bleeding.


More info: https://bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13104-019-4379-9

Dengue Fever

Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a disease caused by dengue virus infection (IVD) which is transmitted through the bite of the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes.

Dengue virus infection is an endemic disease that appears throughout the year, especially in the rainy season in various tropical and sub-tropical regions including in Indonesia. The rainy season is an optimal condition for breeding mosquitoes, so there can be an increase in cases that are high and fast. According to WHO, Indonesia is the second-largest country with dengue cases among 30 endemic regions.

The case fatality rate (CFR) has been estimated at more than 20% of those infected. Knowing that Dengue fever affects millions of people every year, this makes it one of the most important causes of death in Indonesia. Complications can lead to circulatory system failure and shock, and can be fatal (also known as Dengue Shock Syndrome).

In some cases, Dengue infection is asymptomatic – persons do not exhibit symptoms. Those with symptoms get ill between 4 to 7 days after the bite. The infection is characterized by flu-like symptoms which include a sudden high fever coming in separate waves, pain behind the eyes, muscle, joint, and bone pain, severe headache, and a skin rash with red spots. Treatment includes supportive care of symptoms.

There is no antiviral treatment available. The illness may progress to Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF). Symptoms include severe abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, convulsions, bruising, and uncontrolled bleeding.


More info: https://bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13104-019-4379-9

Each year, malaria kills thousands of people in Indonesia. 70% of all deaths are children under five years of age.

Malaria

The malaria trend in Indonesia is increasing dramatically in recent years. The disease is fairly easy to treat, but access to the most effective treatments remains insufficient.

90% of all malaria deaths occur due to a lack of access to medical care. Mosquito nets are expensive and out of reach for many.

  • Malaria risk is present below the altitude of : 2000 meters
  • High-risk months for Malaria are: January to December

The transmission of COVID-19 in Indonesia has continued unabated and has spread to malaria-endemic areas, in particular the eastern provinces of the country, such as East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) where Fair Future is working, Maluku, and Papua, forcing authorities to intensify their vigilance to avoid a double burden of disease.

According to data from the Indonesian Ministry of Health, an estimated 250,644 cases of malaria have occurred in Indonesia, 85% of which are in rural areas. The high level of malaria endemicity in some areas is a cause for concern, not least because there is no end in sight for the COVID-19 crisis.

Plasmodium - a parasite that causes malaria in humans - can damage the immune system, which is why patients with malaria are prone to other infections, including COVID-19.

And there are no new drugs in the development pipeline, which means we may find ourselves without effective options in the future.


More info: https://hellosehat.com/pernapasan/tbc/tbc-di-indonesia/

Malaria

The malaria trend in Indonesia is increasing dramatically in recent years. The disease is fairly easy to treat, but access to the most effective treatments remains insufficient.

90% of all malaria deaths occur due to a lack of access to medical care. Mosquito nets are expensive and out of reach for many.

  • Malaria risk is present below the altitude of : 2000 meters
  • High-risk months for Malaria are: January to December

The transmission of COVID-19 in Indonesia has continued unabated and has spread to malaria-endemic areas, in particular the eastern provinces of the country, such as East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) where Fair Future is working, Maluku, and Papua, forcing authorities to intensify their vigilance to avoid a double burden of disease.

According to data from the Indonesian Ministry of Health, an estimated 250,644 cases of malaria have occurred in Indonesia, 85% of which are in rural areas. The high level of malaria endemicity in some areas is a cause for concern, not least because there is no end in sight for the COVID-19 crisis.

Plasmodium - a parasite that causes malaria in humans - can damage the immune system, which is why patients with malaria are prone to other infections, including COVID-19.

And there are no new drugs in the development pipeline, which means we may find ourselves without effective options in the future.


More info: https://hellosehat.com/pernapasan/tbc/tbc-di-indonesia/

A real health emergency, resistance to antimicrobials. It threatens to make simple cuts & easily treatable diseases, are deadly again.

Antimicrobial resistance

Antimicrobial agents have played a vital role in reducing the burden of communicable diseases around the world. The WHO South-East Asia Region is no exception. On an Indonesian or "local" scale, antimicrobial drugs, including antibiotics, are very cheap, accessible, and very effective. It is with good reason that many have long considered them to be "miracle drugs".

The situation in Indonesia with this major health problem is absolutely catastrophic. Participating physicians prescribe antimicrobials on all counts, for infections for which any form of antimicrobial is unnecessary. Too large a proportion of sick patients simply no longer respond to the treatments they - sometimes very urgently - need.

The emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) creates “superbugs” that make treatment of basic infections difficult (and in some cases impossible) and surgery risky. And while the emergence of resistance in microorganisms is an ongoing phenomenon, its amplification and spread are the results of one thing: human behavior.

The WHO South-East Asia Region is particularly affected. As the risk assessments conducted by WHO have shown, the Region is probably the most at-risk part of the world. Not only does AMR affect the health and well-being of people in Indonesia, it also has ramifications for public health and general well-being. This makes the problem of immense global importance.

 


More info: https://www.balimedicaljournal.org/index.php/bmj/article/viewFile/1386/pdf

Antimicrobial resistance

Antimicrobial agents have played a vital role in reducing the burden of communicable diseases around the world. The WHO South-East Asia Region is no exception. On an Indonesian or "local" scale, antimicrobial drugs, including antibiotics, are very cheap, accessible, and very effective. It is with good reason that many have long considered them to be "miracle drugs".

The situation in Indonesia with this major health problem is absolutely catastrophic. Participating physicians prescribe antimicrobials on all counts, for infections for which any form of antimicrobial is unnecessary. Too large a proportion of sick patients simply no longer respond to the treatments they - sometimes very urgently - need.

The emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) creates “superbugs” that make treatment of basic infections difficult (and in some cases impossible) and surgery risky. And while the emergence of resistance in microorganisms is an ongoing phenomenon, its amplification and spread are the results of one thing: human behavior.

The WHO South-East Asia Region is particularly affected. As the risk assessments conducted by WHO have shown, the Region is probably the most at-risk part of the world. Not only does AMR affect the health and well-being of people in Indonesia, it also has ramifications for public health and general well-being. This makes the problem of immense global importance.

 


More info: https://www.balimedicaljournal.org/index.php/bmj/article/viewFile/1386/pdf
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Fair Future Foundation

Fair Future Foundation

The Fair Future Foundation is a Swiss Foundation recognized of Pure Public Utility & State Approved by the Canton of Vaud and the Swiss Confederation.

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Fair Future Foundation

We drill a new well and we @fairfuturefoundation & @kawanbaikindonesia, found clean water at 38m deep. It's good, clear, health for all!

Our Community garden is happy, people are happy, we are happy.

For social purposes, to reduce malnutrition, improve health and economics issues during the #Covid_19 time.

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